1944: Four years after German conquerors marched through Paris' famous Arc de Triomphe, 15,000 American soldiers of the 28th Infantry Division parade down the newly-liberated capital's Champs-Élysées. The United States of America has had numerous military leaders who have left an indelible mark on human civilization with their acts of courage. Roger Locher, an F-4 "Phantom" weapons systems officer shot down behind enemy lines in North Vietnam. 1944: 27 years to the day after the first bombing raid on London, Germany's V-1 "buzz bombs" - the predecessor to today's cruise missile - make their combat debut when 11 are launched at targets in England. 1942: The submarine USS Growler (SS-215), skippered by Lt. Cmdr. That same day, in Montrebeau Woods, France, a tank driven by Cpl. The heavy bomber prototype featured a massive 172-foot wingspan and could carry over 50,000 lbs. The islands will be captured in just under a month. Not a single ship was attacked by a German submarine. 1972: As peace talks with the North resume, Pres. Within days, Congress would pass the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, leading to full-scale conflict in Vietnam. Aircrews will fly over 100,000 sorties in the covert Operation STEEL TIGER in an attempt to stem the flow of Communist forces and matériel into South Vietnam through Laos. Ralph S. Parr shoots down a Soviet Navy transport plane, making him a double ace (10 confirmed kills) and notching the last air-to-air victory of the war. Bush and other officials. 1909: U.S. Army Lt. (future brig. Beauregard’s artillery forces — strategically positioned around Charleston harbor, S.C. — open fire on Union-held Fort Sumter (constructed atop shoals at the harbor entrance). 1814: During the War of 1812, a force of 2,000 U.S. soldiers and some 600 Native American allies led by Brig. He targets U-656 with depth charges dropped from his Lockheed PBO-1 "Hudson" - the first sinking of a submarine by the United States during World War II. Previously, Davis served as a junior officer in the U.S. Army following graduation from the U.S. Military Academy. The five special warfare support personnel included CPO Nicholas H. Null (30, of Washington, W.Va.), PO1 Michael J. Michael B. Ellis of the 28th Infantry Regiment single-handedly attacks a German machine gun nest near Exermount, France, killing two enemy soldiers and capturing 17. The four-hour spaceflight is the first time a spacecraft makes an orbital maneuver and is the first time NASA sends two men into space. Credited with shooting down an enemy MiG-21 before being shot down himself just four days before he was supposed to go home. 1945: While American planes continue hammering Japanese facilities, Secretary of State James Byrnes rejects the Japanese War Council's surrender terms, including the the Emperor would remain in power. Just after setting the record, his plane loses control and breaks up, killing the test pilot. Malcolm "Scott" Carpenter orbits the earth three times in his "Aurora 7" space capsule, spending nearly four hours above the Earth's surface performing science experiments. For his actions, Walsh is awarded the Medal of Honor. 1787: After putting the finishing touches on the Constitution of the United States, the Continental Congress sends copies out to the states for ratification. He is posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. Among the six new military pilots is Capt. 1941: After receiving an ultimatum from the US ordering Japan to vacate China or face further sanctions, the Japanese First Air Fleet, commanded by Adm. Chuichi Nagumo, departs for their attack on Pearl Harbor. Jon R. Cavaiani's platoon is attacked by a numerically superior enemy force at a camp in Vietnam. In less than two weeks, the U.S. military will invade Iraq. 1966: Neil A. Armstrong (USN, ret.) Medal of Honor: 1st Lt. Arthur MacArthur Jr., father of Gen. Douglas MacArthur, seizes “the colors of his regiment at a critical moment and planted them on the captured works on the crest of Missionary Ridge.” The MacArthurs are the first father and son to be awarded the Medal of Honor. Among the men are Sgts. 1950: Lt. Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway takes over as commander of the retreating 8th Army and immediately travels to the front lines, where he reorganizes the command structure and restores his men's morale. 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