His maternal grandparents were Philip of Swabia and Irene Angelina. Little is known about his upbringing, but he was most likely raised in Toledo. " Gingerich (1990) says that a form of this alleged quotation was mentioned (but rejected) as early as the 16th century by the historian Jerónimo de Zurita, and that Soriano Viguera (1926) states that "nothing of the sort can be found in Alfonso's writings. Under his reign there was a considerable increase of Regal powers and legal strengthening of the figure of the King against the nobility. In 1077, he … Ferdinand III (Spanish: Fernando; 1199/1201 – 30 May 1252), called the Saint (el Santo), was King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230 as well as King of Galicia from 1231.  The Castilian forces withdrew from Gibraltar, with some of the defenders coming out to watch. He openly neglected his wife, Maria of Portugal, and indulged a scandalous passion for Eleanor of Guzman, who bore him ten children. Also known as Alfonso el Sabio or Alfonso the Wise, Alfonso was a scholar with diverse interests, unusual among medieval monarchs; he wrote and collected music and sponsored legal reform (his portrait medallion is in the U.S. House of Representatives gallery of great lawmakers). Alfonso X (also known as the Wise, Spanish: el Sabio; 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284) was the king of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death in 1284. Fernando Alfonso (1336–c. The first two names he earned by the ferocity with which he repressed the disorders caused by the nobles during his long minority; the third by his victory in the Battle of Río Salado over the last formidable Marinid invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 1340. Alfonso was born in Zamora.He was the only son of King Ferdinand II of León and Urraca of Portugal. In the same year Alfonso's half-sister, Eleanor, married Henry's son Edward: with this act Alfonso renounced forever all claim to the Duchy of Gascony, to which Castile had been a pretender since the marriage of Alfonso VIII of Castile with Eleanor of England. This translation of Arabic and Classic documents into vernacular encouraged the development of Spanish sciences, literature, and philosophy. From a young age Alfonso X showed an interest in military life and chivalry. His effective reign began in August 1325 when he was sworn in as King as he was proclaimed to have reached the age of majority in the Cortes of Valladolid. Once Alfonso was declared adult in 1325, he began a reign that would serve to strengthen royal power. After the accession of King Theobald I of Navarre, Ferdinand tried to arrange a marriage for Alfonso with Theobald's daughter, Blanche, but the move was unsuccessful. Jews, Muslims, and Christians had prominent roles in his court. Alfonso's second son, Sancho, claimed to be the new heir, in preference to the children of Ferdinand de la Cerda, basing his claim on an old Castilian custom, that of proximity of blood and agnatic seniority. As a ruler, Alfonso showed legislative capacity, and a wish to provide the kingdoms expanded under his father with a code of laws and a consistent judicial system. Alfonso's scientific interests—he is sometimes nicknamed the Astrologer (el Astrólogo)—led him to sponsor the creation of the Alfonsine tables, and the Alphonsus crater on the moon is named after him. Alfonso, King of Castile: A Tragedy, in Five Acts (Classic Reprint): Lewis, M G: 9780331771817: Books - Amazon.ca He killed for reasons of state without any form of trial. In 1231 Alfonso traveled with Pérez de Castron on a military campaign in lower Andalusia. His nobles, whom he tried to cow by sporadic acts of violence, rebelled against him in 1272. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality.  The main significance of this work lies in the translations from Latin into Castilian. As he was the first Alfonso to be King of Castile, he is sometimes referred to as Alfonso I of Castile. In the end, after Richard's death, the German princes elected Rudolph I of Habsburg (1273), Alfonso being declared deposed by Pope Gregory X. He was the son of Ferdinand IV of Castile and his wife Constance of Portugal. To obtain money, Alfonso debased the coinage and then endeavored to prevent a rise in prices by an arbitrary tariff. Alfonso had many works previously written in Arabic and Latin translated into vernacular Castilian in his court. He was the king of Castile from 1158 and the son of Sancho III, whom he succeeded when he was three years old. With Mayor Guillén de Guzmán, daughter of Guillén Pérez de Guzmán and of María González Girón, he fathered: With Elvira Rodríguez de Villada, daughter of Rodrigo Fernández de Villada, he fathered: With María Alfonso de León, his aunt, the illegitimate daughter of the King Alfonso IX of León and Teresa Gil de Soverosa he had: harvcoltxt error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFO'Callaghan1993 (. Alfonso X, king of Castile, was born Nov. 23, 1221, in Toledo, Spain. In addition to these books of astral magic, Alfonso ordered the translation of well-known Arabic astrological compendia, including the Libro de las cruzes and Libro conplido en los iudizios de las estrellas. This work was an attempt at a world history that drew from many sources and included translations from the Vulgate Old Testament mixed with myths and histories from the classical world, mostly Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Writing in Estoria de España, Alfonso describes having seen St. James on a white horse with a white banner and a legion of knights fighting a war above the soldiers of Spain. " Nevertheless, Dean Acheson (U.S. Secretary of State, 1949–1953) used it as the basis for the title and epigraph of his memoir Present at the Creation.. In 1261 he captured Jerez. He managed to extend the limits of his kingdom to the Strait of Gibraltar after the important victory at the Battle of Río Salado against the Marinid Dynasty in 1340 and the conquest of the Kingdom of Algeciras in 1344. Alfonso "turned to the vernacular for the kind of intellectual commitments that formerly were inconceivable outside Latin. Alfonso X (also occasionally Alphonso X, Alphonse X, or Alfons X, 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284), called the Wise (Spanish: el Sabio), was the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death. He surrounded himself with mostly Jewish translators who rendered Arabic scientific texts into Castilian at Toledo. Alfonso II (1–25 March 1157 – 25 April 1196), called the Chaste or the Troubadour, was the King of Aragon and, as Alfons I, the Count of Barcelona from 1164 until his death. He fought a successful war with Portugal, but a less successful one with Granada. These works included Cantigas d'escarnio e maldicer and the vast compilation Cantigas de Santa Maria ("Songs to the Virgin Mary"), which was written in Galician-Portuguese and figures among the most important of his works.  He fostered the issuance of cartas pueblas as strategy for the demographic strengthening in the borderland areas.. He was persuaded by Alfonso VI of Leon and Castile to marry the latter’s heiress, Urraca, widow of … Their final output promoted Castilian as a learning language both in science and literature, and established the foundations of the new Spanish language. King Alfonso VIII, King of Castile King Alfonso VIII of Castile was born November 11th, 1155, became king of Castile at the tender age of 3 in 1158, and died on October 5th, 1214. Alfonso XI (13 August 1311 – 26 March 1350), called the Avenger (el Justiciero), was the king of Castile, León and Galicia. Alfonso preferred to leave the throne to his grandsons, but Sancho had the support of the nobility. Alfonso XI, king of Castile and Leon, 1311-1350--Drama. As a result of his encouraging the translation of works from Arabic and Latin into the vernacular of Castile, many intellectual changes took place, including the encouragement of the use of Castilian as a primary language of higher learning, science, and law.  It was completed in 1283. John of Gaunt claimed the title of King of Castile and Léon by virtue of his marriage to Constance, daughter of Peter of Castile. Alfonso VIII, byname El de Las Navas (Spanish: He of Las Navas), (born 1155—died Oct. 6, 1214, Burgos, Castile), king of Castile from 1158, son of Sancho III, whom he succeeded when three years old. Buy the Hardcover Book Alfonso, King of Castile: A Tragedy, in Five Acts by M G. 1775-1818 Lewis at Indigo.ca, Canada's largest bookstore. Un rey en tierra de frontera (1312-1350)", "Notas para el itinerario de Alfonso XI en el periodo de 1344 a 1350", "Towards a Symbolic History of Alfonso XI of Castile: Power, Ceremony and Triumph", "Evolución del Concejo de Murcia en la Edad Media", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alfonso_XI_of_Castile&oldid=1003895811, 14th-century deaths from plague (disease), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2016, Articles needing translation from Spanish Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. His second marriage, in 1328, was to his double first cousin Maria of Portugal, daughter of Alfonso IV of Portugal. House of Trastámara Edit Henry II was the illegitimate son of Alfonso XI. Before Alfonso came of age, his reign was troubled by internal strife and the intervention of the kingdom of Navarre in Castilian affairs. Alfonso XI (13 August 1311 – 26 March 1350), called the Avenger (el Justiciero), was the king of Castile, León and Galicia. Upon his father's death in 1312, several disputes ensued over who … As a lawmaker he introduced the first vernacular law code in Spain, the Siete Partidas. He renounced his claim to Germany in 1275, and in creating an alliance with the Kingdom of England in 1254, his claim on the Duchy of Gascony as well. [Further citations needed] Others have argued that his efforts were too singularly focused on the diplomatic and financial arrangements surrounding his bid to become Holy Roman Emperor. His grandmother, María de Molina, his mother Constance, his granduncle Infante John of Castile, Lord of Valencia de Campos, son of King Alfonso X of Castile and uncle Infante Peter of Castile, Lord of Cameros, son of King Sancho IV assumed the regency. His rival, Richard of Cornwall, went to Germany and was crowned in 1257 at Aachen. The early period of Alfonso's reign saw the translation of selected works of magic (Lapidario, Picatrix, Libro de las formas et las ymagenes) all translated by a Jewish scholar named Yehuda ben Moshe (Yhuda Mosca, in the Old Spanish source texts). Once Alfonso was declared adult in 1325, he began a reign that would serve to strengthen royal power. In 1256, at the death of William II of Holland, Alfonso's descent from the Hohenstaufen through his mother, a daughter of Philip of Swabia, gave him a claim through the Hohenstaufen line. One famous, but apocryphal, quote attributed to him upon his hearing an explanation of the extremely complicated mathematics required to demonstrate Ptolemy's theory of astronomy was "If the Lord Almighty had consulted me before embarking on creation thus, I should have recommended something simpler. Queen Constance died first on 18 November 1313, followed by Infantes John and Peter during a military campaign against Granada in 1319 at the Disaster of the Vega, which left Dowager Queen María as the only regent until her death on 1 July 1321. Alfonso XI never went to the insane lengths of his son Peter of Castile, but he could be bloody in his methods.  This world history was left incomplete, however, and so it stops at the birth of Christ. Infected by the Black Death during the 1349–1350 siege of Gibraltar, Alfonso died in the night of 25–26 March 1350 (some sources put the date wrongfully at 27 March). Alfonso, born Alfonso Raimúndez, first used the title Emperor of All Spain, alongside his mother Urraca, once she vested him with the direct rule of Toledo in 1116.… Wollesen, Jens T. "Sub specie ludi...: Text and Images in Alfonso El Sabio's Libro de Acedrex, Dados e Tablas", Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 53:3, 1990. pp. During the election of 1257, a dissident faction chose him to be king of Germany on 1 April. Violante was ten years old at the time of her marriage to Alfonso; she produced no children for several years and it was feared that she was barren. Alfonso IX (15 August 1171 – 23 or 24 September 1230) was king of León and Galicia from the death of his father Ferdinand II in 1188 until his own death. HRE Ferdinand I's 7-Great Grandfather. Free shipping and pickup in store on eligible orders. The Fuero Real[further explanation needed] was undoubtedly his work. , Alfonso X commissioned or co-authored numerous works of music during his reign. Born in Toledo, Kingdom of Castile, Alfonso was the eldest son of Ferdinand III and Elizabeth (Beatrice) of Swabia. This evolved version of the Castilian language also acquired significant relevance in the royal chancery, where it came to replace Latin, which until then had been the language commonly used for royal diplomacy in Castile and León.. He conducted several military actions, borrowing heavily from London merchants, to solidify his title, without success. Alfonso’s father, Ferdinand III, conquered Andalusia and imposed tribute on the remaining Muslim states in Spain—Murcia and Granada. Barton, Simon.  Most of the texts first translated at this time survive in only one manuscript each. Because of this, and because the Partidas remain fundamental law in the American Southwest, he is one of the 23 lawmakers depicted in the House of Representatives chamber of the United States Capitol. Buy the Paperback Book Alfonso, King Of Castile: A Tragedy, In Five Acts by M. G. Lewis at Indigo.ca, Canada's largest bookstore. HM George I's 12-Great Grandfather. Alfonso, King of Castile: A Tragedy, in Five Acts (Classic Reprint): Lewis, Matthew Gregory: 9780259491248: Books - Amazon.ca Alfonso was the son of Sancho V Ramírez. Alfonso XI first married Constanza Manuel in 1325, but had the union annulled two years later. Alfonso, King of Castile: A Tragedy, in Five Acts (Classic Reprint): Lewis, Matthew Gregory: 9780259276456: Books - Amazon.ca Análisis histórico e implicaciones simbólicas", Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, "Alfonso XI y Andalucía. Alfonso XI ordered the assassination of his uncle Juan the One-eyed in Toro in the 1326 eve of the feast of All Saints, along with two of the latter's knights, luring the former with promises of reconciliation.. 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